Glossary

APACHE

Apache is an open source Web server that is distributed free. Apache
runs on Unix-based operating systems (including Linux and Solaris) and
Windows 95/98/NT. Apache was originally based on the NCSA server, but
is now an independent product, supported by the nonprofit Apache
Software Foundation. 

BROWSER 

A browser is a software application that lets you access information
on the Internet. Browsers can read HTML and send HTTP or FTP requests
for services on the Internet. Browsers are usually associated with the
World Wide Web portion of the Internet. 

CGI 

CGI, or the common gateway interface, provides a standardized method
for Web servers to send a user request to an application and to receive
information back for the user. For example, when you click on a URL
link, the Web server sends the requested page to you. CGI is part of
the HTTP protocol. CGI works in many different languages, and across
several different platforms. 

CLIENT 

A client is a company or individual requesting services from an
Internet presence provider. A client is a customer of a Web hosting
company, or a user of Internet services. In hardware terminology, a
client is a computer system or a software package that requests
services or information from another application that resides across
the network. Think of the client as your PC or workstation, through
which you access programs and data across a network or the Internet,
usually on a server. In very simple terms, a client is a user. 

DB WebAdmin 

DB WebAdmin is a web-based administration tool that allows to manage a whole MySQL server as well as a single database. 

DNS

DNS, short for Domain Name System, is a distributed database that maps names and IP addresses for computers using the Internet. DNS is a standardized system that identifies domain name servers. 

DOMAIN 

A domain is a virtual address on the Internet for any organization
or entity. Technically, a domain is a group of networked computers
(servers) that represent an organization and provide network services.
However, several domains could reside on one server, in dedicated space
provided by a Web hosting service. To the Internet user, a domain
appears as space on one server, regardless of the implementation.
Domains are identified by their familiar Internet URL (uniform resource
locator) addresses. For example, www.sw-soft.com is the name of the
domain where SWsoft information resides on its servers. Syntactically,
a domain name is a string of names or words separated by periods. For
example, a domain name such as: hello.house.neighborhood.com includes
the names of:

the host: hello
the subdomain: house
the domain: neighborhood
the organization type: com 

Some top-level domain names: 

arpa: ARPAnet (a Defense Department communications system that established the Internet) 

com: Commercial, for-profit organizations and businesses 

edu: Educational institutions 

gov: Government organizations 

int: International organizations 

mil: U. S.-based military 

net: Internet access providers 

org: Non-profit organizations 

aero: Air-transport industry 

biz: Businesses 

coop: Cooperatives 

info: Information 

museum: Museums 

name: For registration by individuals 

pro: Accountants, lawyers, physicians, and other professionals 

2-alphabetic characters: the country code top-level domains (ccTLDs), such as, for instance .uk for United Kingdom. 

FTP 

FTP, or File Transfer Protocol, is a method used to transfer files
to (upload) and from (download) a remote server. You can use the FTP
command to: 

Copy a file from the Internet to your PC

Move a file from your PC up to the Internet 

Rename an existing file 

Delete a file 

Update an existing file with more recent data 

GATEWAY 

A gateway is a combination of hardware and software allowing
dissimilar systems to communicate by filtering data through
standardized protocols. Think of a gateway as a translator that allows
your PC to talk with other computers on the network. 

HOST 

In a network, a host is usually a computer that stores software
applications and data that may be accessed or retrieved by other users.
But a host can be any addressable device on the network, not just a
computer. The host provides services to other computers or users. An
Internet Service Provider may also be referred to as a Web hosting
company. 

HTML 

HTML, or HyperText Markup Language, is a standardized language for
presenting information, graphics, and multimedia on the World Wide Web.
HTML consists of hundreds of codes, tags, and symbols that define the
type of information and how it should be displayed in a browser. HTML
is universally understood on a wide variety of platforms. 

HTTP 

HTTP, or HyperText Transfer Protocol, is a standard for sharing
World Wide Web files. HTTP lets you communicate across the Internet by
carrying messages from your browser to a server. 

IMAP 

IMAP, or Internet Message Access Protocol, is a method for receiving
e-mail messages from other Internet users on your local server. IMAP
lets you see message headers before choosing and viewing the entire
text of mail messages. You can selectively retrieve mail messages with
IMAP. Compare IMAP to the POP and SMTP mail protocols. 

IP ADDRESS 

An IP address (Internet Protocol address) is an internal number that
identifies a host on the Internet or a network. IP numbers are
invisible to end users, replaced in your user interface by the more
familiar domain names and URLs. 

IP POOL 

IP address pool is the range of available IP addresses. 

MAIL AUTORESPONDER 

Mail autoresponders are automatic replies to email sent to a
particular mail name. Autoresponders can include both a text message
and attached files. This mail function is often used on mail accounts
for individuals who are away for a certain period of time, or are
unable to check their mail for any number of reasons. 

MAIL GROUP 

Mail groups are used for sending e-mail to a group of people through
one address rather than to each individual address. Mail groups save
you time and effort in reaching several people at once; you only have
to create one e-mail message to the group, rather than several
identical messages to everyone. 

MAILMAN 

Mailman is software to help manage email discussion lists, much like
Majordomo and SmartList. Unlike most similar products, Mailman gives
each mailing list a web page, and allows users to subscribe,
unsubscribe, etc. over the web. Even the list manager can administer
his or her list entirely from the web. Mailman also integrates most
things people want to do with mailing lists, including archiving,
mail-to-news gateways, integrated bounce handling, spam prevention,
email-based admin commands, direct SMTP delivery (with fast bulk
mailing), support for virtual domains, and more. Mailman runs on most
Un*x-like systems, is compatible with most web servers and browsers,
and most SMTP servers. 

MAIL REDIRECT 

Mail redirects are used to forward or redirect email from one POP3
mailbox to another email address. By creating an email redirect or
alias, messages are sent to a different email box without the sender
needing to know the new address. Email can be redirected to an address
outside the domain. 

MySQL 

SQL is a Structured Query Language that was created as a
standardized method of defining, manipulating, and searching data in a
database. It is currently the most commonly used database language. My
SQL is a fast, easy-to-use, multi-user SQL database server in a
standard client/server environment. MySQL handles graphics as well as
text. For more information, visit http://www.mysql.com. 

NETWORK 

A network is a system of interconnected computers and peripheral devices (such as printers). 

PACKET 

Data that is transported across the Internet is divided into small,
manageable units called packets. Data packets can be sent more quickly
and efficiently across a network than the full stream of data in a
message or file. 

PERL 

Perl is an interpreted high-level programming language. Perl is very
popular among System Administrators who use it for a vast number of
automation tasks. Many CGI programs are written in Perl. 

PHP 

PHP (originally meaning Personal Home Page) is a server-based HTML
embedded scripting language that runs on multiple platforms, primarily
on Linux servers. PHP accesses and manipulates data in a MySQL
database, and helps you create dynamic Web pages. You write HTML and
embed code in the HTML that performs a specific function. The embedded
code is the PHP portion of the script, identified in the HTML by
special start and stop tags. A PHP file has an extension of .php or
.php3 or phtml. All PHP code is executed on a server, unlike a language
such as JavaScript that is executed on the client system. For more
information, visit http://www.php3.org. 

POP3 

POP3, or Post Office Protocol Version 3, is a method used to receive
electronic mail across the Internet, accommodating different mail
software packages and systems. POP3 receives and holds all your e-mail
on a server. You can then download all your messages when you connect
to the mail server; you cannot selectively retrieve messages. Compare
POP to the IMAP mail protocol. 

POSTGRESQL 

PostgreSQL is an open source database system, that began as an
enhancement to the POSTGRES research prototype DBMS. Where POSTGRES
used the PostQuel query language, PostgreSQL uses a subset of SQL. 

PROTECTED DIRECTORY 

A directory is an organized collection of files and subdirectory
folders on a computer. A protected directory is one that cannot be
accessed by all public users; you must have access privileges to read
information in a protected directory. 

PYTHON 

Python is an interpreted high-level programming language. You can
write web-based applications in Python that will run many times faster
than traditional CGI and will have access to advanced features such as
ability to retain database connections and other data between hits and
access to Apache internals. 

QMAIL 

Qmail is a secure and highly reliable e-mail message handling
system. It replaces the sendmail daemon on Unix and Linux systems.
Qmail is fast and uses little memory. Users can create their own mail
lists, and system administration is minimal. Qmail uses the Simple Mail
Transfer Protocol (SMTP) for message exchange with other systems. 

REBOOT 

Rebooting simply means restarting a computer. You should not reboot
a server that has users accessing it until you have informed the users
that the server must be shut down temporarily. Sometimes, an emergency
necessitates rebooting a server immediately, but it is not a
recommended practice. 

SECURE HTTP 

Secure HTTP (S-HTTP or HTTPS) is an encryption method uses to
protect documents on the World Wide Web. An alternative to S-HTTP is an
SSL certificate (or Secure Socket Layer) that secures an entire
session, not just a document or a file. S-HTTP supports several
different message encryption formats, and works with any communication
between clients and servers. 

SECURITY 

There are several different ways to control access to a computer or
network, to protect proprietary data, and to maintain privacy. Security
measures can be defined at several different levels (at the server
level, on a directory, for an individual file, etc.) for optimum
protection. 

SERVER 

A server is a computer system (a combination of hardware and
software) that runs programs, stores files, directs traffic, and
controls communications on a network or the Internet. Clients (also
called users or workstations) access a server for specific information
and services. 

SHARED IP 

An IP address that can be used for hosting by several clients. 

SKELETON DIRECTORY 

In Plesk, this term refers to a set of directories and files that
get copied into a newly created virtual host directory structure at the
time the virtual host is created. It may be used to have a set of CGI
scripts included with every account created in Plesk. It is very useful
if you are looking to have a more informative, customized welcoming
index.html page, and it is also helpful if you have anything else that
needs to be included by default within the directories of the virtual
host. 

SMTP 

SMTP, or Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, is a standard for
transmitting mail messages across different computers on a TCP/IP
network. SMTP can only be used when both the mail sender and receiver
are ready. If the destination PC is not ready, a 'post office' must
temporarily store the mail. In that case, a post office protocol such
as IMAP or POP is used to retrieve the mail. 

SSI 

SSI stands for 'server-side includes', a type of HTML comment that
directs the webserver to dynamically generate data for the Web page
whenever information is requested. SSIs can also be used to execute
programs and insert the results; therefore they represent a powerful
tool for web developers. 

SSL 

SSL stands for Secure Socket Layer, and is a set of rules used for
exchanging information between two computer devices using a public
encryption system. SSL establishes secure communications between
servers and clients. SSL provides a safe and authenticated method of
handling e-commerce transactions. Only authorized users can access and
read an SSL-encrypted data stream. An alternative to SSL is Secure HTTP
(S-HTTP), used to encrypt World Wide Web documents (rather than
securing an entire session, as does SSL). 

SSL CERTIFICATE 

An SSL certificate is an electronic key that encrypts transmissions
between two computers on a public network, providing privacy and
security to the session. Think of an SSL certificate as an electronic
ID card for an individual or a computer service. An SSL certificate
confirms that a message that you receive actually did come from the
person identified. The certificate key is issued by a third party. SSL
certificates are used for secure e-commerce communications, protecting
information such as credit card numbers and personal data. You can
generate an SSL certificate with a utility such as SSLeay. Then, submit
it to a certificate authority such as GeoTrust, Inc (www.geotrust.com). 

TCP 

TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol, and is the primary
data transport protocol on the Internet. TCP transmissions are fast,
reliable, and full-duplexed. 

TCP/IP 

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, commonly known as
TCP/IP, is a data transmission protocol that was developed by ARPA, the
Advanced Research Projects Agency. ARPA is the founding organization of
the Internet. 

TELNET 

Telnet is a method of accessing another remote computer. You can
only access the other computer if you have permission to do so. Telnet
differs from other protocols that simply request information from a
host computer, because it actually logs you on to the remote computer
as a user. 

TOMCAT 

Tomcat is a server solution based on the Java Platform that supports
the Servlet and JSP specifications. Managed by the Apache Jakarta
Project, it is developed in an open and participatory environment. 

URL 

A URL is a Uniform Resource Locator used to identify an organization
or domain on the Internet. URLs are standardized names that are
typically found on the World Wide Web portion of the Internet. URL
addresses identify domains on the network. Read about Domains for more
detail. 

USER 

Simply put, a user is a client. In hardware terminology, a client is
the PC that you use to access information from other computers (usually
servers) on the Internet or network. 

WEBMAIL 

WebMail is a Web based interface to Unix system mailboxes. It allows
a user to access and administer his IMAP/POP3 mailbox via the world
wide web. 

WEB USER 

A web user is a user account within Apache that is used to define
locations for personalized web pages with individual FTP access. 

WORKSTATION 

A workstation is a user or client that accesses information from other computers (usually servers) on a network.

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