Apache is an open source Web server that is distributed free. Apacheruns on Unix-based operating systems (including Linux and Solaris) andWindows 95/98/NT. Apache was originally based on the NCSA server, butis now an independent product, supported by the nonprofit ApacheSoftware Foundation.
A browser is a software application that lets you access informationon the Internet. Browsers can read HTML and send HTTP or FTP requestsfor services on the Internet. Browsers are usually associated with theWorld Wide Web portion of the Internet.
CGI, or the common gateway interface, provides a standardized methodfor Web servers to send a user request to an application and to receiveinformation back for the user. For example, when you click on a URLlink, the Web server sends the requested page to you. CGI is part ofthe HTTP protocol. CGI works in many different languages, and acrossseveral different platforms.
A client is a company or individual requesting services from anInternet presence provider. A client is a customer of a Web hostingcompany, or a user of Internet services. In hardware terminology, aclient is a computer system or a software package that requestsservices or information from another application that resides acrossthe network. Think of the client as your PC or workstation, throughwhich you access programs and data across a network or the Internet,usually on a server. In very simple terms, a client is a user.
DB WebAdmin is a web-based administration tool that allows to manage a whole MySQL server as well as a single database.
DNSDNS, short for Domain Name System, is a distributed database that maps names and IP addresses for computers using the Internet. DNS is a standardized system that identifies domain name servers.
A domain is a virtual address on the Internet for any organizationor entity. Technically, a domain is a group of networked computers(servers) that represent an organization and provide network services.However, several domains could reside on one server, in dedicated spaceprovided by a Web hosting service. To the Internet user, a domainappears as space on one server, regardless of the implementation.Domains are identified by their familiar Internet URL (uniform resourcelocator) addresses. For example, www.sw-soft.com is the name of thedomain where SWsoft information resides on its servers. Syntactically,a domain name is a string of names or words separated by periods. Forexample, a domain name such as: hello.house.neighborhood.com includesthe names of:
the host: hello the subdomain: housethe domain: neighborhoodthe organization type: com
Some top-level domain names:
arpa: ARPAnet (a Defense Department communications system that established the Internet)
com: Commercial, for-profit organizations and businesses
edu: Educational institutions
gov: Government organizations
int: International organizations
mil: U. S.-based military
net: Internet access providers
org: Non-profit organizations
aero: Air-transport industry
name: For registration by individuals
pro: Accountants, lawyers, physicians, and other professionals
2-alphabetic characters: the country code top-level domains (ccTLDs), such as, for instance .uk for United Kingdom.
FTP, or File Transfer Protocol, is a method used to transfer filesto (upload) and from (download) a remote server. You can use the FTPcommand to:
Copy a file from the Internet to your PC
Move a file from your PC up to the Internet
Rename an existing file
Delete a file
Update an existing file with more recent data
A gateway is a combination of hardware and software allowingdissimilar systems to communicate by filtering data throughstandardized protocols. Think of a gateway as a translator that allowsyour PC to talk with other computers on the network.
In a network, a host is usually a computer that stores softwareapplications and data that may be accessed or retrieved by other users.But a host can be any addressable device on the network, not just acomputer. The host provides services to other computers or users. AnInternet Service Provider may also be referred to as a Web hostingcompany.
HTML, or HyperText Markup Language, is a standardized language forpresenting information, graphics, and multimedia on the World Wide Web.HTML consists of hundreds of codes, tags, and symbols that define thetype of information and how it should be displayed in a browser. HTMLis universally understood on a wide variety of platforms.
HTTP, or HyperText Transfer Protocol, is a standard for sharingWorld Wide Web files. HTTP lets you communicate across the Internet bycarrying messages from your browser to a server.
IMAP, or Internet Message Access Protocol, is a method for receivinge-mail messages from other Internet users on your local server. IMAPlets you see message headers before choosing and viewing the entiretext of mail messages. You can selectively retrieve mail messages withIMAP. Compare IMAP to the POP and SMTP mail protocols.
An IP address (Internet Protocol address) is an internal number thatidentifies a host on the Internet or a network. IP numbers areinvisible to end users, replaced in your user interface by the morefamiliar domain names and URLs.
IP address pool is the range of available IP addresses.
Mail autoresponders are automatic replies to email sent to aparticular mail name. Autoresponders can include both a text messageand attached files. This mail function is often used on mail accountsfor individuals who are away for a certain period of time, or areunable to check their mail for any number of reasons.
Mail groups are used for sending e-mail to a group of people throughone address rather than to each individual address. Mail groups saveyou time and effort in reaching several people at once; you only haveto create one e-mail message to the group, rather than severalidentical messages to everyone.
Mailman is software to help manage email discussion lists, much likeMajordomo and SmartList. Unlike most similar products, Mailman giveseach mailing list a web page, and allows users to subscribe,unsubscribe, etc. over the web. Even the list manager can administerhis or her list entirely from the web. Mailman also integrates mostthings people want to do with mailing lists, including archiving,mail-to-news gateways, integrated bounce handling, spam prevention,email-based admin commands, direct SMTP delivery (with fast bulkmailing), support for virtual domains, and more. Mailman runs on mostUn*x-like systems, is compatible with most web servers and browsers,and most SMTP servers.
Mail redirects are used to forward or redirect email from one POP3mailbox to another email address. By creating an email redirect oralias, messages are sent to a different email box without the senderneeding to know the new address. Email can be redirected to an addressoutside the domain.
SQL is a Structured Query Language that was created as astandardized method of defining, manipulating, and searching data in adatabase. It is currently the most commonly used database language. MySQL is a fast, easy-to-use, multi-user SQL database server in astandard client/server environment. MySQL handles graphics as well astext. For more information, visit http://www.mysql.com.
A network is a system of interconnected computers and peripheral devices (such as printers).
Data that is transported across the Internet is divided into small,manageable units called packets. Data packets can be sent more quicklyand efficiently across a network than the full stream of data in amessage or file.
Perl is an interpreted high-level programming language. Perl is verypopular among System Administrators who use it for a vast number ofautomation tasks. Many CGI programs are written in Perl.
POP3, or Post Office Protocol Version 3, is a method used to receiveelectronic mail across the Internet, accommodating different mailsoftware packages and systems. POP3 receives and holds all your e-mailon a server. You can then download all your messages when you connectto the mail server; you cannot selectively retrieve messages. ComparePOP to the IMAP mail protocol.
PostgreSQL is an open source database system, that began as anenhancement to the POSTGRES research prototype DBMS. Where POSTGRESused the PostQuel query language, PostgreSQL uses a subset of SQL.
A directory is an organized collection of files and subdirectoryfolders on a computer. A protected directory is one that cannot beaccessed by all public users; you must have access privileges to readinformation in a protected directory.
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language. You canwrite web-based applications in Python that will run many times fasterthan traditional CGI and will have access to advanced features such asability to retain database connections and other data between hits andaccess to Apache internals.
Qmail is a secure and highly reliable e-mail message handlingsystem. It replaces the sendmail daemon on Unix and Linux systems.Qmail is fast and uses little memory. Users can create their own maillists, and system administration is minimal. Qmail uses the Simple MailTransfer Protocol (SMTP) for message exchange with other systems.
Rebooting simply means restarting a computer. You should not reboota server that has users accessing it until you have informed the usersthat the server must be shut down temporarily. Sometimes, an emergencynecessitates rebooting a server immediately, but it is not arecommended practice.
Secure HTTP (S-HTTP or HTTPS) is an encryption method uses toprotect documents on the World Wide Web. An alternative to S-HTTP is anSSL certificate (or Secure Socket Layer) that secures an entiresession, not just a document or a file. S-HTTP supports severaldifferent message encryption formats, and works with any communicationbetween clients and servers.
There are several different ways to control access to a computer ornetwork, to protect proprietary data, and to maintain privacy. Securitymeasures can be defined at several different levels (at the serverlevel, on a directory, for an individual file, etc.) for optimumprotection.
A server is a computer system (a combination of hardware andsoftware) that runs programs, stores files, directs traffic, andcontrols communications on a network or the Internet. Clients (alsocalled users or workstations) access a server for specific informationand services.
An IP address that can be used for hosting by several clients.
In Plesk, this term refers to a set of directories and files thatget copied into a newly created virtual host directory structure at thetime the virtual host is created. It may be used to have a set of CGIscripts included with every account created in Plesk. It is very usefulif you are looking to have a more informative, customized welcomingindex.html page, and it is also helpful if you have anything else thatneeds to be included by default within the directories of the virtualhost.
SMTP, or Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, is a standard fortransmitting mail messages across different computers on a TCP/IPnetwork. SMTP can only be used when both the mail sender and receiverare ready. If the destination PC is not ready, a 'post office' musttemporarily store the mail. In that case, a post office protocol suchas IMAP or POP is used to retrieve the mail.
SSI stands for 'server-side includes', a type of HTML comment thatdirects the webserver to dynamically generate data for the Web pagewhenever information is requested. SSIs can also be used to executeprograms and insert the results; therefore they represent a powerfultool for web developers.
SSL stands for Secure Socket Layer, and is a set of rules used forexchanging information between two computer devices using a publicencryption system. SSL establishes secure communications betweenservers and clients. SSL provides a safe and authenticated method ofhandling e-commerce transactions. Only authorized users can access andread an SSL-encrypted data stream. An alternative to SSL is Secure HTTP(S-HTTP), used to encrypt World Wide Web documents (rather thansecuring an entire session, as does SSL).
An SSL certificate is an electronic key that encrypts transmissionsbetween two computers on a public network, providing privacy andsecurity to the session. Think of an SSL certificate as an electronicID card for an individual or a computer service. An SSL certificateconfirms that a message that you receive actually did come from theperson identified. The certificate key is issued by a third party. SSLcertificates are used for secure e-commerce communications, protectinginformation such as credit card numbers and personal data. You cangenerate an SSL certificate with a utility such as SSLeay. Then, submitit to a certificate authority such as GeoTrust, Inc (www.geotrust.com).
TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol, and is the primarydata transport protocol on the Internet. TCP transmissions are fast,reliable, and full-duplexed.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, commonly known asTCP/IP, is a data transmission protocol that was developed by ARPA, theAdvanced Research Projects Agency. ARPA is the founding organization ofthe Internet.
Telnet is a method of accessing another remote computer. You canonly access the other computer if you have permission to do so. Telnetdiffers from other protocols that simply request information from ahost computer, because it actually logs you on to the remote computeras a user.
Tomcat is a server solution based on the Java Platform that supportsthe Servlet and JSP specifications. Managed by the Apache JakartaProject, it is developed in an open and participatory environment.
A URL is a Uniform Resource Locator used to identify an organizationor domain on the Internet. URLs are standardized names that aretypically found on the World Wide Web portion of the Internet. URLaddresses identify domains on the network. Read about Domains for moredetail.
Simply put, a user is a client. In hardware terminology, a client isthe PC that you use to access information from other computers (usuallyservers) on the Internet or network.
WebMail is a Web based interface to Unix system mailboxes. It allowsa user to access and administer his IMAP/POP3 mailbox via the worldwide web.
A web user is a user account within Apache that is used to definelocations for personalized web pages with individual FTP access.
A workstation is a user or client that accesses information from other computers (usually servers) on a network.
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